Evaluation of Psychological Factors in Temporomandibular Joint Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature
Keywords:Multidiscplinary approach, Pain dysfunction syndrome, psychological, Temporomandibular assessment
Objective: This study reports the findings from the psychological assessment of temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome (TMJPDS) patients and the treatment outcome following a multidisciplinary team management of this condition.
Methods: Three patients suffering from TMJPDS were administered the following psychological assessment questionnaires: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Symptom Distress Checklist – 90 (SCL - 90), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Index of self Esteem (ISE) and Chronic Pain Grade (CPG). The completed questionnaires by the patients were analyzed by a Clinical Psychologist.
Case Reports: Case 1 was a 32 years old male. Psychological assessment showed that he manifested high peak position to being anxious and high feeling of tension associated with dental treatment. He also showed an increased pain perception and disability caused by TMJPDS. Case 2 was a 61 years old female. Psychological test showed that despite her high level of trait anxiety, the feeling of tension associated with dental treatment was low. She perceived her abnormal pain and disability caused by the disease to be low. Case 3 was a 39 years old female. Psychological assessment revealed that her predisposition to being anxious was high; however, her anxiety related to dental care was low. She also reported a reduced pain perception and disability caused by the disease condition.
Conclusion: This study shows that TMJPDS is often associated with psychological problems, such as anxiety, with or without tension related to dental care, abnormal pain perception and psychological disability. A multidisciplinary team approach including dentists and mental health experts in the management of patients suffering from TMJPDS is recommended.