Nigerian Journal of Dental Research http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres <p>EDITORIAL <br /><br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br /><br />It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br /><br />On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br /><br />The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br /><br />Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in January and July. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br /><br />On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br /><br />In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br /><br />Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br /><br />Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br /> <br />Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al. reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br /><br />Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br /><br /><br /><br />Professor ON Obuekwe<br />Editor-in-Chief<br /><br /><br /></p> A Peer-reviewed Journal Publication of the School of Dentistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Dental Research 2636-4956 Oral disease burden amongst residents of an internally displaced persons camp in Nigeria http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/257 <p>Objective: To assess the prevalence of oral diseases and<br>conditions amongst residents of an isolated camp that<br>caters for internally displaced persons to define their oral<br>health need in order to facilitate surveillance and planning<br>of interventional programmes.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among<br>randomly selected residents of a camp at Uhogua village<br>forest reserve, Edo State, Nigeria. Socio-demographic data<br>was obtained using an interviewer-administered<br>questionnaire. Oral examination was carried out under<br>natural illumination using mouth mirror, wooden spatula<br>and blunt dental explorer. Oral hygiene was graded using<br>Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Diagnoses of caries and<br>periodontal disease were according to the World Health<br>Organization criteria. Clinical diagnosis of oral<br>lesions/conditions was by visual inspection. IBM SPSS<br>version 25.0 was used for descriptive and inferential analysis<br>at 95% confidence interval with p set at &lt; 0.05 significance.<br>Results: The mean age of the 437 study participants was<br>15.81 ± 8.42 with a range of 4 - 71 years. Males (43.0%),<br>females (57.0%) and participants with primary education<br>(78.7%). Only 3.4% of the study participants had good oral<br>hygiene and 11.9% of the group had periodontal pockets.<br>Dental caries prevalence was 19.7%. The DMFT/dmft index<br>value was 0.33/0.13 with PUFA/pufa score of 0.06/0.02.<br>However, 35.0% of permanent teeth and 79.0% of<br>deciduous teeth had evidence of dento-oral infection and<br>ulceration. The prevalence of oral ulcers (1.8%), leukoplakia<br>(2.1%), erythroplakia (0.5%), oral candidiasis (5.3%), cleft<br>palate (0.2%) and traumatic dental injury (4.3%). were<br>noted. Lower educational attainment was associated with<br>presence of periodontal pockets (p=0.029) and dental caries<br>(p=0.004).<br>Conclusion: Poor oral hygiene was prevalent in this group.<br>Although the prevalence of oral diseases and conditions<br>were low in comparison with previous local studies, many of<br>the carious lesions had signs of dento-oral infections.<br>Improved access to education with a significant oral health<br>education content and preventive oral health services are<br>recommended strategies in reducing the oral health<br>challenges of this group.<br><br></p> Ukachi Chiwendu NNAWUIHE Uwaila OTAKHOIGBOGIE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 109 115 Patients’ perception about professionalism in dental practice: experience in a southwestern tertiary institution. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/260 <p>Objective: When individuals have negative perceptions<br>about dental care, they refuse to seek treatment which<br>leads to worsened conditions. The interactions with<br>patients attending the various dental clinics revealed<br>some dissatisfaction with the quality of service<br>delivered. The objective of this study was to assess the<br>perception of the patients about the dentists and dental<br>nurses.<br>Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a<br>period of three months among old and new patients<br>attending the Oral Diagnosis, Periodontology,<br>Orthodontic, Oral Surgery, Conservative, Prosthetic<br>and Paedodontic Clinics at the dental centre, University<br>College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The data<br>was collected using an English-language questionnaire<br>and analysed using the IBM SPSS Software version 23.<br>Results: There were 228 participants, majority were<br>females (55.4%) and belonged to the 56 years and above<br>age group (20%). The patients agreed (40.6%) and<br>strongly agreed (32.1%) that the first impression they<br>had of their dentist affected their confidence in him/her.<br>More than half of the patients (52.7%) reported they<br>were particular about the physical appearance of their<br>dentist and 84.3% preferred their dentist to be<br>professionally dressed. Greater than half of the patients<br>(64.1%) and almost half (46.2%) claimed that their<br>overall experience with their dentist and dental nurse<br>was excellent respectively.<br>Conclusion: It was observed that the patients were not<br>particular about the demographics of the dentists or<br>dental nurses but placed more emphasis on appearance,<br>behaviour and skills which ultimately influenced their<br>overall experience and perception.</p> Amidu Omotayo SULAIMAN Modupe Ayinke SOYINKA Gbenga Emmanuel ADEBAYO Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 116 126 Dental auxiliaries in tertiary hospitals in Nigeria; oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/277 <p>Objective: This study was aimed at determining the oral<br>self-care practices and dental service utilization among<br>dental auxiliaries in teaching hospitals in Nigeria, and also<br>to assess the dental utilization of their relatives.<br>Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional<br>multicenter study conducted among dental auxiliaries<br>from three teaching hospitals in Nigeria, namely;<br>University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Port<br>Harcourt, Rivers State, Lagos University Teaching Hospital<br>(LUTH) Idi-araba, Lagos State and University College<br>Hospital, (UCH) Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. Selfadministered<br>questionnaires were used to obtain<br>information on participants’ sociodemography, oral<br>hygiene practices and dental service utilization. The self -<br>rated oral health status was used to assess their oral health<br>behavior (frequency of brushing, regular check-up and<br>fluoride application). Statistical analysis was done using<br>the IBM SPSS version 20.0. Statistical significance level<br>was considered at p ? 0.05.<br>Results: A total of 101 participants were enrolled into the<br>study, consisting of dental nurses (16[15.8%]), dental<br>technicians (21[20.8%]), dental technologists (46[45.5%])<br>and dental therapists (18[17.8%]). The mean age of the<br>participants was 35.12 ± 8.89 years. Female: Male ratio was<br>2.26: 1. Most (90.1%) of the study participants rated their<br>oral hygiene as excellent. Slightly over half (57.4%) brushed<br>twice daily; 25% of the dental nurses, 52.4% of the dental<br>technicians, 58.7% of the dental technologists and 88.9%<br>of the dental therapists, this was statistically significant<br>(p=0.002). Frequency of dental check-up for six months<br>among the participants was low (31.7%). Only 31 (30.7%) of<br>the participants had scaling and polishing done in the last<br>6 months. More of the dental nurses (93.8%) and<br>technicians (71.4%) had invited their relatives for scaling<br>and polishing compared to the other dental auxiliaries<br>(p=0.0019).<br>Conclusion: Even though the dental therapists had better<br>tooth brushing practices in this study, the oral hygiene<br>practices and utilization of dental services by the dental<br>auxiliaries were generally less than optimal. There was a<br>disparity between the self-rated oral health status and oral<br>health practices of the dental auxiliaries. There is need for<br>better motivation of dental auxiliaries towards optimal oral<br>hygiene behavior.</p> Grace Onyenashia ALADE Kehinde Adesola UMEIZUDIKE Babatope Bamidele OSAGBEMIRO Modupe Temitope OYETADE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 127 138 Knowledge of local anesthetics anaphylaxis among dental practitioners in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/274 <p>Background: Anaphylaxis is an acutely presenting lifethreatening<br>medical emergency. Studies have shown<br>that dentists feel inadequately able to recognize and<br>treat anaphylaxis. This study aims to determine the level<br>of knowledge of local anesthetic (LA) anaphylaxis<br>among dentists in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital.<br>Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based<br>study was conducted among dental practitioners at the<br>Dental complex of the University of Benin Teaching<br>Hospital, Nigeria from August 2020 to January 2021.<br>The questionnaire consisted of 21 items divided into<br>four main sections: (1) Demographic characteristics, (2)<br>general knowledge on local anesthetic anaphylaxis, (3)<br>knowledge on signs and symptoms of local anesthetic<br>anaphylaxis, (4) knowledge on treatment of local<br>anesthetic anaphylaxis. Data was analyzed using<br>Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0,<br>IBM, Armonk, NY, USA.<br>Results: The 101 respondents approached agreed to<br>participate in the study. There were more males (64.4%)<br>compared to females. Majority of the respondents were<br>aged 30 -39 years. None of the respondents knew<br>completely all the signs and symptoms of anaphylactic<br>reaction from LA. None of the respondents got the<br>complete drugs to be kept in the office for LA<br>anaphylaxis. Less than half (43.6%) of the respondents<br>knew that epinephrine is the drug of first choice for<br>anaphylactic reactions. Only 50(49.5%) of the<br>respondents knew that the best route for epinephrine<br>administration is intramuscular route.<br>Conclusion: Adequate knowledge on anaphylaxis from<br>local anesthesia is lacking among dental practitioners in<br>our centre.</p> Benlance Ekaniyere EDETANLEN Daniel ALUOJERIO Ufadi LAWANI Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 139 144 An overview of cases of parotid gland tumors managed in a teaching hospital, North-west, Nigeria http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/264 <p>Objective: Salivary gland tumors are mostly slow<br>growing and painless. Majorities are located in the<br>parotid glands and are benign. Treatment of these<br>parotid tumors may endanger the facial nerve. This<br>study evaluated the clinical presentation and<br>management of parotid gland tumors in Kaduna, Northwest,<br>Nigeria.<br>Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients<br>that were treated for parotid gland tumors at the<br>Maxillofacial Unit of Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital,<br>Kaduna, North-west, Nigeria over a period of 13years<br>(January 2008 to December, 2020). Patients’ records<br>were analyzed for age, sex, clinical presentation,<br>investigations, surgical management, histological<br>diagnosis and outcome of treatment.<br>Results: A total of 55 patients with parotid gland tumors<br>were seen. Age range was 12 - 75 years with a mean of<br>45.5 (SD± 0.7) years. The male: female ratio was found<br>to be 1.1: 1. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest<br>tumour (n=28, 50.9%). Four (7.3%) patients who had<br>been on antiretroviral medications were seen with<br>massive tumors. Superficial parotidectomy was the<br>commonest surgical procedure carried out in these<br>patients. Patients with malignancies were referred for<br>post-surgical radiotherapy. High early recurrences were<br>noticed in patients who were retroviral positive.<br>Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the<br>commonest tumors treated and superficial<br>parotidectomy was the commonest surgical procedure<br>performed for the treatment of parotid gland tumors.<br>Post-operative radiotherapy as an adjunct was carried<br>out in cases with diagnosis of malignant lesions.<br><br>, .</p> Olatunde Oluleke OMISAKIN Ramatu Aliyu ZUBAIR Modupe Arinola OGUNSINA Sannom YATES Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 145 151 Oral pyogenic granuloma: Analysis of 137 cases that presented in a Nigerian tertiary health institution. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/265 <p>Background: Oral pyogenic granuloma is a common<br>oral lesion among African population. It often presents<br>as a painless, pedunculated, or sessile mass within the<br>oral cavity. However, etiopathogenesis of oral pyogenic<br>granuloma is still debatable. This article reviewed and<br>identified the possible predisposing factors to the<br>development of oral pyogenic granuloma amongst<br>patients presenting at a sub urban tertiary health care<br>facility.<br>Methods: Information about 137 patients that<br>presented with pyogenic granuloma from January 2009<br>to December 2019 were retrieved from the records<br>department of Federal Medical Centre, Nguru. The data<br>that were reviewed and analyzed included ages of<br>patients, gender, anatomical site of lesions, treatment<br>instituted as well as clinical and histopathologic<br>features.<br>Results: Patients ages ranged from 10 to 70 years<br>(mean=41.02± 2.1 years), with the greatest degree of<br>occurrence (29.19%) in the third decade of life. The<br>male-to-female ratio was 1:1.7. The most frequently<br>involved site was the gingiva. Other sites where<br>pyogenic granuloma was located were the tongue,<br>check mucosa, and palate. Oral pyogenic granulomas<br>were more prevalent in the maxilla than in the<br>mandible, with the labiobuccal gingiva of both jaws<br>more commonly affected. The main complaint of the<br>patients was painless swelling associated with<br>occasional bleeding. More than half of the lesions had a<br>pedunculated base, with surface ulceration in some<br>cases. All lesions were surgically excised, although<br>8.03% of the cases existed as recurrent lesions.<br>Conclusion: Although the clinicopathologic features of<br>oral pyogenic granuloma in the study population were<br>similar to those previously reported and their aetiology<br>multifactorial, this study revealed that poor oral hygiene<br>status of patients played a major role in their<br>development.</p> Thomas OWOBU Uchenna Kelvin OMEJE Shehu Adamu SULAIMAN Onisoman Azah OBA Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 152 159 Knowledge and practice of health workers to tooth avulsion in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/266 <p>Objective: The health care workers (HCW) may be the<br>first contact of a tooth avulsion case. This study aimed<br>to assess their knowledge and practice of emergency<br>management of tooth avulsion.<br>Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out<br>among health care workers in a teaching hospital, using<br>a self-administered questionnaires containing closed<br>and open-ended questions, on their knowledge and<br>practice of management of tooth avulsion. Data<br>collected was analyzed using EPI info version 7 statistical<br>software.<br>Results: A total of 362 questionnaires were<br>administered with a response rate of 90.4%. The health<br>care workers were 331 between the ages of 18years to<br>64years. There were 200(60.4%) females and<br>131(39.6%) males (ratio 3:2). Less than half (41.7%) of<br>the respondents rated their knowledge on avulsion as<br>fair.<br>About half of the respondents 156(47.1%) reported that<br>primary tooth should be replaced into the socket. The<br>knowledge of how to hold avulsed tooth among<br>217(65.6%) of the respondents was incorrect. More than<br>half 185(55.9%) answered that avulsed teeth, will be<br>stored in a dry medium. Less than half, 146(44.1%) knew<br>the appropriate storage media to be used. Only a third<br>122(36.9%) were confident in their knowledge to replant<br>an avulsed tooth.<br>About a third 114(34.4%) of HCW had encountered an<br>avulsion case, most were dentists and nurses. More than<br>a quarter 92(27.7%) referred the avulsion while (16.1%)<br>did nothing to the avulsed tooth.<br>Conclusion: There is a need to increase the knowledge<br>and practice of HCW, so that immediate replantation<br>can be practiced thereby improving the prognosis for<br>replanted teeth.</p> Modupe Oluwafunmilayo ASHIWAJU Omotayo Adebola OREMOSU Omolola Olubunmi ORENUGA Ezi Abigail AKAJI Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 160 168 Periodontal treatment need, interdental cleaning habit and dental services utilization of a Nigerian population. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/267 <p>Objective: Optimal home-use plaque-control measure<br>maintains a functional dentition and reduces the risk of<br>loss of periodontal attachment throughout life. The<br>combination of toothbrushing and inter-proximal oral<br>hygiene devices optimally prevents plaque<br>accumulation. Individual’s attitude, lack of awareness<br>and affordability are barriers for the utilization of dental<br>services. This study evaluated the interdental cleaning<br>habits; periodontal treatment needs and dental service<br>utilization of a Nigerian population.<br>Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were used<br>to obtain information on socio-demographics, use of<br>interdental cleaning aid and health services utilization of<br>participants. A full-mouth examination was done to<br>assess the periodontal status and the treatment needs<br>of the participants using the CPITN probe. Data was<br>analyzed using Epi info 2008 version 3.5.1<br>Result: Only 24.4% of the participants who claimed to<br>clean interdentally actually used dental floss and<br>interdental brushes) while majority of them<br>({160(71.2%)} used toothpicks. Three out of five<br>participants {49(59%)} who do not clean interdentally,<br>didn’t know that they had to do so. Though 284(92.2%)<br>of the participants do not routinely access oral care,<br>almost half (49.7%) had previous dental check-ups,<br>scaling and polishing, tooth extractions and<br>restorations. 44(14.3%) did not need periodontal<br>treatment, 131(42.5%) needed Oral Hygiene Instruction<br>(OHI) and Scaling and Polishing (S&amp;P) and 19(6.2%)<br>needed OHI, S&amp;P and sub-gingival scaling.<br>Conclusion: Dental services utilization was low until<br>they perceived that they have a dental ailment,<br>appropriate interdental aids were not used and<br>knowledge on the need for interdental cleaning and<br>advance periodontal treatment need of the participants<br>were low.</p> Modupeoluwa O. SOROYE Elizabeth B. DOSUMU Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 169 176 Untreated malocclusions and oral health status of an urban Population in South-South Nigeria. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/269 <p>Objective: Lack of awareness and an accompanying<br>lack of knowledge results in a lack of utilization of dental<br>services and a consequent increased burden of oral<br>disease. This study assessed untreated malocclusions<br>and the oral health status of an urban population.<br>Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design was<br>employed. Data was collected from consenting<br>participants using an interviewer administered<br>questionnaire after which an intraoral examination was<br>carried out on each participant. Data was analysed using<br>the SPSS version 20 and the level of significance set at<br>p&lt;0.05.<br>Results: There were a total of 403 participants in this<br>study. About a tenth of the participants indulged in oral<br>habits 41 (10.2%). Untreated malocclusions in the form<br>of tooth displacements 35 (8.7%), rotations 32 (7.9%),<br>crossbite 9 (2.2%) and scissors bite 1 (0.3%) were seen in<br>the study population. Majority, 383 (95%) used a<br>toothbrush and flouridated toothpaste to clean their<br>teeth and 264 (65.5%) brushed once a day. Most of the<br>participants 281 (69.7%) had good oral hygiene.<br>Conclusion: Several untreated malocclusions<br>comprising tooth rotations, displacements, crossbite,<br>scissors bite and anterior open bite were seen in our<br>study population. Their utilization of dental services was<br>poor but oral health practices were good which<br>translated to good oral hygiene and low DMFT.</p> Elfleda Angelina AIKINS Modupeoluwa Omotunde SOROYE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 177 183 Antimicrobial efficacy of non-fluoride toothpaste on isolated oral microbes – an in vitro study. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/270 <p>Objective: To evaluate the Antimicrobial Efficacy of<br>Non-Fluoride Toothpaste on Isolated Oral Microbes<br>Method: The antimicrobial activity of the non-fluoride<br>toothpaste against isolated oral microbes was<br>determined by dilution method at neat dilution, 1/2, 1/4,<br>1/8 and 1/16.<br>Results: Study results showed that Streptococcus spp<br>was resistant while the maximum zone of inhibition was<br>on Lactobacilli spp. It was also observed that zone of<br>inhibition decreases with the increase in dilution except<br>for Streptococcus spp.<br>Conclusion: This study revealed that while the nonfluoride<br>toothpaste containing mainly triclosan and<br>natural extract was significantly effective against most<br>isolated oral microbes causing oral diseases it however,<br>showed little or no effect against Streptococcus spp<br>which is primarily involved in caries initiation.</p> Mike Eghosa OGBEIDE Adedoyin Odunayo ADEBOWALE Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 184 190 Use of hard stainless steel “office” pin as improvised post in the management of Ellis class III fracture of anterior teeth in a resource poor and challenging environment: Case reports. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/271 <p>Objective: Traumatic dental injury is considered as the<br>damage to the teeth and/or other hard and soft tissues<br>within and around the oral cavity caused by the collision of<br>the individual with a moving or stationary object.<br>Traumatic dental injury to the anterior teeth can result in<br>varying degree of injuries ranging from various types of<br>fracture of teeth to avulsed teeth. Ellis class III fracture of<br>anterior teeth following trauma, is a common<br>presentation to the dental clinic and may result in pain and<br>discomfort, aesthetic challenge and impaired quality of<br>life. The treatment of Ellis class III fracture of anterior teeth<br>involves a combination of treatment of the pulp injury and<br>the un-aesthetic crown fracture, usually by endodontic<br>treatment and Aesthetic Restorative Materials (ARM).<br>This article reviewed the use of ARM in the management<br>of Ellis class III fracture of anterior teeth and reported our<br>experience in Stella Obasanjo Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria<br>on Ellis class III fracture of anterior teeth managed with<br>hard stainless steel “office” pin retained composite<br>restoration.<br>Results: Composite restoration retained with hard<br>stainless steel pin meets the patients’ expectations of<br>aesthetics; strength and retention of restorative material<br>after the fractured teeth have been treated with RCT.<br>Conclusion: Hard stainless steel “office” pin retained<br>composite restoration facilitates the retention of the<br>aesthetic material (composite) which results in morale<br>boost, improved patients’ comfort and improved quality<br>of life of patients. Authors hereby suggest the use of hard<br>stainless steel "office" pin as an acceptable improvised<br>post in a resource poor environment rather than risk<br>failure of restoration.</p> Paul ERHABOR Soseipiriala ALALIBO Benjamin Onimisi OKINO Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 191 199 Reasons and pattern of tooth extractions among 2-16 years old dental patients in Maiduguri: A retrospective study. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/272 <p>Objective: The study aimed to determine the reasons<br>and pattern of tooth extractions among 2-16 years old<br>dental out-patients in Maiduguri.<br>Methods: The study was cross-sectional and<br>retrospective. The study population consisted of<br>children aged 2-16 years who had at least one tooth<br>extracted over a period of two years at Child Dental<br>Health Department of University of Maiduguri Teaching<br>Hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from<br>University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Ethical<br>Committee. Record of patients seen from January 2018<br>to December 2019 were retrieved using a pro-forma.<br>Information obtained included: patient’s age, gender,<br>indication for the extraction and tooth extracted.<br>Results: A total of 340 teeth from two hundred and<br>forty-four children were included in the study. 169 teeth<br>from males and 171 teeth from females. The mean age<br>of subjects was 8.76 ± 2.785years. Dental caries and<br>complications was the leading reason for extraction<br>(50%), followed by orthodontic reason, 129 (37.9%) and<br>then trauma, 16 (4.7%). More primary teeth (311) were<br>extracted than their permanent counterpart (29). The<br>mandibular right first primary molar tooth was the tooth<br>mostly extracted.<br>Conclusion: The study revealed that there is need for<br>improved oral health awareness and oral health<br>promotion to prevent early tooth mortality.</p> Akinwumi Emmanuel OROMAKINDE Taofeek Olalekan LIGALI Kanadi KWARI Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 200 207 Impact of malocclusion on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of 8 to 10 years old school children. http://njdres.com/index.php/njdres/article/view/275 <p>Objective: To investigate the impact of malocclusion on<br>the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of<br>school children.<br>Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among four<br>hundred and twenty five (425) 8-10 years school pupils<br>in Lagos Nigeria. Malocclusion was assessed using the<br>Dental Aesthetic Index while OHRQoL was assessed<br>using the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ 8-10).<br>Data entry and analyses was done with SPSS Version<br>23.0. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical<br>analysis and Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were<br>used for comparison between variables. Level of<br>significance was set at 0.05.<br>Results: Gender distribution of the study population<br>was; 48.8% (208) males and 51.2% (217) females. The<br>mean age of the participants was 9.23±0.83 and their<br>median age was 9 years. The prevalence of<br>malocclusion according to DAI was 25.9%. Over 70% of<br>the children were found to have no/ or slight need for<br>orthodontic treatment (DAI score &lt; 25), elective<br>treatment was needed in 19.1% of subjects (DAI score<br>25-30), while in 6.8% of the surveyed population;<br>treatment was highly desirable/mandatory. The<br>differences in the prevalence of malocclusion among<br>the different age groups was observed to be statistically<br>significant (P = 0.038). The overall mean CPQ 8-10 was<br>19.51±17.1. There was no statistically significant<br>difference in mean CPQ scores between gender<br>(P=0.565), age (P=0.524) and severity of malocclusion<br>(P=0.296)<br>Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in this<br>study was 25.9% with an overall mean CPQ of<br>19.51±17.1. Higher mean CPQ values were observed<br>with females, older age group and subjects with DAI 31-<br>35; however, it was not statistically significant.</p> Onyinye O. UMEH Adaku L. BEN OKOYE Ikenna G. ISIEKWE Oluwatosin O. SANU Ifeoma L. UTOMI Oluranti O. DACOSTA Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 2 208 218