Nigerian Journal of Dental Research 2023-07-21T17:10:16+00:00 Editor-In-Chief Open Journal Systems <p>EDITORIAL <br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br /><br />It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br /><br />On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br /><br />The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br /><br />Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in January and July. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br /><br />On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br /><br />In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br /><br />Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br /><br />Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br /> <br />Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al. reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br /><br />Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br /><br /><br /><br />Professor ON Obuekwe<br />Editor-in-Chief<br /><br /><br /></p> Herpes Zoster Mandibularis: Dilemma of Diagnosis - A Case Report. 2023-07-13T15:29:40+00:00 Akinwale Olaleye AKINBADE Evudafo OLUWATUYI Olusegun Adesola BUSARI <p><strong>Background</strong>: Herpes zoster infection involving the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve is rare. It can present with severe pre-eruptive pain along the nerve distribution. As presented by the patient in this study, this lesion may be mistaken for other painful conditions, leading to misdiagnosis and maltreatment. Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most common and important complication of herpes zoster infection. It is often refractory to treatment and can profoundly affect the patient's quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To report an unusual and rare case of herpes zoster mandibularis and the diagnostic dilemma experienced in the management.</p> <p><strong>Case Report</strong>: A 60-year-old female presented with severe intractable pain from the left side of the tongue and floor of the mouth, rashes of the lower lip and cheek, and ulcerations of the oral cavity. After a period of diagnostic puzzle due to confusing presentations, a diagnosis of herpes zoster infection involving the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve complicated with postherpetic neuralgia was finally made and the patient was treated accordingly. The peculiarity, management, and treatment outcome of the case are discussed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Herpes zoster mandibularis, as seen in this case, can present with confusing clinical features and can lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This study aims to raise awareness of the clinical presentation of this rare entity among clinicians in medical and dental practices. It is also advisable to seek dental and orofacial evaluation for patients with a similar presentation from specialists in Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Comparison of Two Dexamethasone Intervention Time Points in Reducing Post-Operative Sequelae of Mandibular Fracture Osteosynthesis 2023-07-13T15:42:25+00:00 John WEMAMBU Taofiq OPALEYE Abdulsalami YUSSUF Moradeke ALONGE Eyituoyo OKOTURO <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mandibular fracture osteosynthesis comes with mechanical and thermal assaults to surrounding tissues resulting in the sequelae of pain, trismus, and oedema. Dexamethasone is known to reduce these sequelae; pain, swelling and trismus, with varying outcomes, and the lack of a standardized regimen for its optimal effect in maxillofacial surgery remains a cause of concern to researchers.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare two dexamethasone intervention time points in reducing post-operative sequelae of mandibular fracture osteosynthesis</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 102 subjects with mandibular body fractures in the age bracket of 20-60 years were recruited into the study and divided into preoperative, intraoperative, and control groups. 4mg of dexamethasone was injected via the submucosal route into the intact mucogingival area below the fracture line, one hour before making the incision in the preoperative group, at the time of the incision for the intraoperative group, and injection of the same volume of 0.9% normal saline preoperatively for the control group. Following osteosynthesis, postoperative sequelae, and complications were assessed on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was a reduction in pain, swelling, and trismus in both test groups compared to the control with a significant reduction observed in the intraoperative group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results showed that the administration of 4mg submucous dexamethasone reduces postoperative sequelae after mandibular fracture osteosynthesis with the intraoperative administration resulting in a significant reduction in postoperative pain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Facial Profile and Characteristics of Occlusal Features in Primary Dentition among Children Aged 2-5 Years in Southern Nigeria 2023-07-13T16:02:20+00:00 Philip Uwaezuoke OGORDI <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>To assess the facial profile and characteristic features of occlusion in primary dentition among paediatric dental patients in a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study comprising 224 children aged 2 to 5 years who visited the paediatric dental clinic over one year with the full complements of their primary dentition. All the children were screened for molar and canine relations, overjet, overbite, anthropoid and developmental spaces, as well as their facial profiles, and the data were recorded. Data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS version 21.0, Chicago). The Chi-square test analyzed categorical data with a level of significance for all statistical tests set at a probability value of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Bilateral flush terminal plane molar relationship was the most prevalent in 126(56%), followed by the mesial step 84(37.5%). Molar relationship and gender were statistically significant (P= 0.001). Bilateral canine class I was the most common relationship in 189(84.4%), bilateral normal overjet in 191(85.3%) and bilateral normal overbite in 183(81.7%). The majority of the developmental spaces were in the maxilla 136(60.7%) and mostly among males (69%); this was statistically significant (p=0.023). Anthropoid spaces were most prevalent in the maxilla 198(88.4%) and among males (94%), which was statistically significant (p=0.019). Straight facial profile was the most common profile 147(65.6%), although more in males (67%), it was not statistically significant (p=0.823).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study's most prevalent facial and occlusal characteristics were the straight facial profile, bilateral flush terminal relationship, class 1 canine, normal overjet, normal overbite, and maxillary anthropoid and developmental spaces. Revealed in this study were mostly desirable occlusal features but with some occlusal characteristics that deviate from the norm.</p> <p><br><br></p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Oral Health Knowledge, Behaviour and Self-Reported Oral Health Conditions among Medical Students in Western Uganda. 2023-07-13T16:39:51+00:00 Stephen Kinyanjui WATITIU Collins Nimbiye AGHOLOR Benedict Erhite AMALIMEH <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the oral health knowledge, oral health behaviour, and self-reported oral health conditions among undergraduate medical students on clinical rotation in Dentistry.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> The study recruited 104 undergraduate medical students on clinical rotation in Dentistry at the Kampala International University – Western Campus dental clinic. Data was collected online using a structured questionnaire uploaded to a Google form for easy data collection while also controlling non-response. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 26. A test for the association between the variables was done using Pearson’s chi-square statistic. Statistical significance was considered to be p-value &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority (59.6%) of the respondents were male, aged between 22 and 25 years with a mean age of 22.20 ± 1.45. Findings showed that the majority of the respondents had basic knowledge of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.&nbsp; However, it was observed that 54.8% of respondents had not had a dental visit in the past year. The study also investigated self-reported oral health conditions, and it was observed that 83.7% of respondents reported having oral infections or diseases in the last year.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The level of knowledge on oral health among participants in the study did not consistently translate into appropriate oral health behaviour. There is a need to include oral health as part of the curriculum for medical students for practical orientation. Also, the students should be encouraged to adopt recommended oral health practices and guidelines to ensure that they are both knowledgeable and capable of maintaining good oral health for themselves and the communities they intend to serve.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Genetic Determinants of Periosteum Mediated Craniofacial Bone Regeneration: A Systematic Review 2023-07-14T07:03:19+00:00 Eyituoyo OKOTURO <p><strong>Background: </strong>Periosteum-mediated bone regeneration (PMBR) is a known mandibular reconstruction. Though poorly understood and unpredictable, the concerns of developmental changes to donor and recipient tissues shared by other treatment options appear nonexistent. The definitive role of the periosteum during bone regeneration in any mammal remains poorly understood.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To characterise genetic determinants of PMBR in mammals through a systematic review.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Our search methodology was modeled after the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. The quality assessment of each publication was undertaken and the differences in gene expression at time points in weeks 1 and 2 were appraised</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. The study subjects and tissues studied were 3 rat calvaria and 1 calf calvaria transplanted on mice. One out of the 4 studies had a quality score of the requisite ?3. The gene expression results showed an upregulation of genes responsible for angiogenesis, cytokine activities, and immune-inflammatory response in week-1, and skeletal development and signaling pathways, in week-2</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results suggest that skeletal morphogenesis regulated by skeletal developmental genes and pathways may characterise the gene expression patterns of PMBR</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Salivary Buffering Capacity, Flow Rate and Calcium Levels in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries – a Comparative Study 2023-07-21T16:02:24+00:00 Aderinsola Sophia OMOTUYOLE Folakemi Adenike OREDUGBA Elizabeth Obalowu SOTE Smith Ishmael JAJA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a phenomenon that affects primary teeth in children below 6 years of age. Its severity could have a far-reaching impact on children with resultant effects on their quality of life. An assessment of a child's caries risk using saliva is a valuable non-invasive diagnostic tool utilised in preventing or reducing the impact of this condition.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the buffering capacity, flow rate and calcium levels of saliva in children and their association with ECC.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The study consisted of fifty (50) subjects aged 45 to 71 months recruited from Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) and staff primary school, Idi-Araba. Unstimulated saliva collected between 9 – 11 am was used to evaluate saliva's buffering capacity, flow rate and calcium levels in children with and without ECC.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The subjects were aged below 71 months (with a mean age of 56.66 ± 7.17 months). A major proportion (67.0%) of the component of the dmft was cavitated lesion related. The caries-free subjects had slightly higher mean rank values in salivary flow rate (MR = 27.52, U = 262, p = 0.325), slightly lower mean rank values in calcium level (MR = 24.64, U = 291, p = 0.677) and lower buffering capacity values than caries active subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The properties of saliva such as buffering capacity, flow rate and calcium level were not significantly different between the study groups. &nbsp;Therefore, there is no association between buffering capacity, flow rate, calcium level, and ECC. This implies that more investigations are required to evaluate the protective effects of other salivary physiochemical factors like antioxidants, other than those investigated in this study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Knowledge and Attitude of Specialist Hospital Health Care Workers to Dental Services in Benin City. 2023-07-21T16:19:47+00:00 Uyiosa Julia EREGIE Paul ERHABOR <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To examine the knowledge and attitude to dental services among Health Care Workers in a specialist hospital setting.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive study was carried out among all cadres of workers in Edo Specialist Hospital (ESH); a government-owned secondary health facility located in Benin City. A structured online questionnaire created using Google forms was used to collect data anonymously from participants. The online form extracted information on demographic characteristics, oral health awareness, pattern of dental visits, and utilization of dental services at Edo Specialist Hospital. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 26.0 for frequency distribution and cross tabulation. Test for statistical significance was done using chi-square statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Majority of the participants had never visited a dentist before (59, 54.6%). Majority (48, 44.4%) of the respondents reported that they had not seen the need to visit. Among the respondents, the commonest reasons for previous dental visits were toothache (15, 13.9%) and Stains and deposits on the teeth (13, 12.0%). Majority (76, 70.4%) of respondents had a good or fair understanding of the causes of dental caries. All participants (108,100%) were aware that there was a dental clinic at Edo Specialist Hospital (ESH). However, majority (86, 79.6%) had never visited it. Among the respondents, the commonest reason given for not attending the dental clinic at ESH was that they never saw the need to visit (54, 50.0%). On the other hand, the commonest reasons given for visiting the dental clinic at ESH were toothache (12, 11.2%) and Stains and deposits on the teeth (5, 4.7%). There was a significant relationship between the Staff cadre and previous dental visits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Knowledge of dental care and service utilization was poor. Clinically indicated dental visit was seen among healthcare workers in a specialist healthcare facility</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023