Nigerian Journal of Dental Research <p>EDITORIAL <br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br /><br />The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br /><br />It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br /><br />On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br /><br />The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br /><br />Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in January and July. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br /><br />On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br /><br />In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br /><br />Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br /><br />Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br /> <br />Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al. reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br /><br />Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br /><br /><br /><br />Professor ON Obuekwe<br />Editor-in-Chief<br /><br /><br /></p> A Peer-reviewed Journal Publication of the School of Dentistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria en-US Nigerian Journal of Dental Research 2636-4956 Immediate complete dentures: a case report. <p><strong>Background</strong>:&nbsp; Immediate complete denture is one of the treatment options in patients requiring extraction. It plays a significant role in the immediate restoration of aesthetics and other oral functions. The dentures are fabricated before the extraction of all the remaining teeth and delivered immediately to the patient after the extraction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Case: </strong>This presents a case of a patient with aggressive periodontitis managed with an immediate complete denture. The patient had reservations about conventional complete dentures due to concerns about being seen as edentulous while extraction sockets healed. The patient was satisfied with the simple and economical treatment modality of immediate complete denture.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tunde Joshua OGUNRINDE Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 1 4 A rare case of fibrous dysplasia in the mandible: a case report <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign fibro-osseous lesion of the bone which can be monostotic FD and the polyostotic form. Polyostotic FD with café-au-lait spots of the skin and hormonal imbalances is called McCune–Albright syndrome. Besides, Mazabraud syndrome is characterized by polyostotic FD and intramuscular myxomas. FD has its onset during childhood or early adolescence and usually occurs within the first or second decade of life.</p> <p>The mode of presentation of the FD of the jaw ranges from asymptomatic to dental anomalies, pain, and facial asymmetry. Given the clinical history and radiological assessment, cystic lesions have some important differential diagnoses which range from cystic ameloblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, and odontogenic keratocyst.</p> <p><strong>Case report</strong>: This presents a 19-year-old female who presented to the maxillofacial surgeons’ clinic with a referral from a peripheral hospital. Her major complaint was right-sided facial swelling which was noticed 4 years before the presentation. A plain radiograph revealed an expansile lesion of the mid-right mandible appearing as a well-outlined, fairly oval multiloculated cystic radiolucent mass with multiple internal septations. A preliminary diagnosis of a complex cystic right jaw mass with benign features was made with possible differential diagnoses such as ameloblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, and odontogenic keratocyst were suggested as possible differential diagnoses. Finally, she had an excision biopsy with a histological diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia. The outcome of the surgery was satisfactory at one year review.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Samson Emeka OBIRIJA Mumini Wemimo RASHEED Juliet Ebele OKONKWO Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 5 10 The Use of Teledentistry for Patient Care among Dentists in Nigeria <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine the proportion of Nigerian dentists presently utilising Teledentistry, factors affecting its use, means of communication and devices used and their opinions on it acceptability, effectiveness and suitability in dental practice.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A Survey Monkey online poll was used to collect data on participants’ demographics, their use of Teledentistry, perceived benefits and challenges of Teledentistry, as well as opinions on its acceptability, effectiveness, and suitability. The chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences between groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 119 participants, 62.2% do not currently utilize Teledentistry. Less than half (42.6%) with internet access at work and 12.5% with internet access only at home utilize Teledentistry (P=0.016). Cell phones and personal computers are the only devices used but 60% of participants in public health care used cell phones (P= 0.425). The majority (94.9%) of the study participants agreed that Teledentistry can be used to connect patients with specialist care that may not be readily available but only 47.1% agreed to the use of Teledentistry for specialized care of patients. Eighty-four per cent agreed that the cost of telecommunications equipment for Teledentistry can be a cause for concern and 66.4% agreed that privacy is still a concern in Teledentistry.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The use of Teledentistry among Nigerian dentists is currently low and access to the Internet during work hours may increase Teledentistry utilisation. Cell phones and personal computers are commonly used in both public and private dental centers. Although many Nigerian dentists consider Teledentistry effective, there are a few concerns about its acceptability and suitability for use in their dental practice</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mathew Asizide SEDE Adebola Oluyemisi EHIZELE Nneka Maureen CHUKWUMAH Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 11 21 Assessment of knowledge of the association between periodontitis and systemic conditions among clinical medical and nursing students <p><strong>Background: </strong>Periodontitis has been linked to some systemic conditions. The knowledge of this association by qualified health professionals and those in training is very vital in holistic patient care.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess knowledge of the association between periodontitis and systemic conditions among clinical medical and nursing students</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among clinical medical and clinical nursing students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered with 156 properly filled. Section A of the questionnaire had questions on the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, while section B included questions on the assessment of participants’ awareness and knowledge regarding the possible link between periodontitis and some systemic conditions. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 25.0 with p ? 0.05 considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total number of 156 clinical medical and nursing students participated in the study, 99 (63.5%) were females, while the remaining 57 (36.5%) were males. The age range of the participants was 19-35 years with a mean age of 23.31 ± 2.50 years.&nbsp;&nbsp; Of the 156 participants, 85 (54.5 %) were clinical medical students while 71 (45.5%) were clinical nursing students. 74.4% of the medical students and 35.7% of the nursing students knew that there was a possible link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (p=0.000). 54.9% of medical students and 30.0% of nursing students agreed that there is a possible link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (p=0.001). Using Bloom’s concept, 69 (81.2%) of the medical students and 53 (74.6%) of nursing students demonstrated low knowledge about the link between periodontitis and systemic conditions,&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was an inadequate level of knowledge of the possible association between periodontitis and some systemic conditions among the participants. Hence, there is a need to include oral health education in the undergraduate curriculum of both medical and nursing students.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Grace O ALADE Uwaila ALADE Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 22 30 Comparison of Clinical and Self-Reported Halitosis among Secondary School Adolescents in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Halitosis is of extreme relevance in adolescents due to their peculiar predisposition to conditions that affect social relationships.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the factors associated with halitosis and compare its prevalence using self and clinical reports among secondary school adolescents in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was carried out among one hundred and fifty 12-18-year-old secondary school students in Maiduguri. The multistage sampling technique was used for the selection of participants and data was collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire on socio-demography, knowledge of the aetiology of halitosis, oral hygiene practices and self-perception of halitosis. A trained and calibrated examiner did clinical halitosis by organoleptic assessment. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were done to determine the association between the investigated factors and halitosis. The level of test of significance (p) was set at &lt; 0.05</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 17.3 % while using the organoleptic method (clinical halitosis), about 12 (8.0%) had slight to moderate halitosis. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported halitosis and halitosis determined using the organoleptic method. Among the investigated factors, frequency of brushing and gingival bleeding were found to be statistically significantly associated with self-reported halitosis, (aOR 3.64; p=0.032) and (aOR 3.06; p=0.045) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Adolescents reported halitosis more than was clinically present which may have led to more aggressive oral hygiene practices. There is therefore the need to increase awareness on halitosis and proper oral health behaviour in adolescents in the Northern part of Nigeria.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Adeola Temitope WILLIAMS Chinwe C. EZECHUKWU Falmata B. BABABE Bamidele. Olubukola POPOOLA Olushola IBIYEMI Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 31 39 Oral hygiene practices and status of stroke patients attending an outpatient clinic in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. <p><strong>Background:</strong> There may be an impairment of oral self-care post-stroke which may compromise oral hygiene and health. However, there is paucity of information on oral hygiene and oral health status of stroke patients in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the oral hygiene and health status of stroke outpatients.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A cross-sectional study of stroke patients attending the neurology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria was conducted. Data on sociodemographic variables and oral health behaviour was obtained. Each patient was examined to determine the oral hygiene status using the Simplified Oral Hygiene index, DMFT index for the status of caries, Modified gingival index for the presence or absence of gingival disease and Modified Rankin score for functional impairment</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 120 participants with a mean age of 60.30±13.21 years. Poor oral hygiene status was found in 29.7% while 28.8% had good oral hygiene status. The mean DMFT was 1.37±2.672. Dental caries was seen in 48/120 (40%) while 28 (23.3%) had gingival diseases. A modified Rankin score of 3-5 was independently associated with poor oral hygiene status (OR 1.367; 95% CI 1.020-1.832; p=0.036).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Poor oral hygiene status is common in patients with stroke and the risk of this is higher in those with poor functional status. Oral health status should be considered in the holistic rehabilitation of stroke patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Moshood Folorunsho ADEYEMI Abiodun BELLO Moninuola Adebusola BELLO Ehigie IGBEN Kolawole WAHAB Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 9 1 40 47