Nigerian Journal of Dental Research <p>EDITORIAL <br><br><br>The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research: Dawn of an Era<br><br>The Nigerian Journal of Dental Research (NJDR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official publication of the School of Dentistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. Events leading to the birth of NJDR started in 2012, when the School Board of Studies then under the Chairmanship of Professor AA Umweni as the Dean of the School of Dentistry inaugurated a Scientific Committee to organize annual scientific conferences of the School as a means to showcase the various research activities of the faculty members both as individuals and in collaboration with researchers within and outside the University of Benin. <br><br>It was in 2016, following the adoption of the recommendation of the report of the Scientific Committee that the seed was sown for the NJDR, with my humble self, sitting as the Dean of the School and Chairman of the School Board of Studies. Subsequently membership of the editorial board was approved by the School Board of Studies.<br><br>On the Occasion of the 5th Annual Scientific Conference, under the Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Benin, Professor FFO Orumwense FNSE, the birth of the Journal was pronounced in August 2016. With this, the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research joins the few University-based specialist journals in Nigeria, dedicated to disseminating research findings in Dentistry and its subspecialties.<br><br>The specialties of Dentistry covered include all aspects of a) Diagnostics, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine &amp; Pathology, b) Dental Therapeutics, c) Endodontics, Prosthodontics &amp; Restorative Dentistry, d) Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, e) Orthodontics, f) Paedodontics, g) Periodontics, h) Community Dental Health. These various specialties have erudite Professors and scholars as section editors and very quality articles are promised.<br><br>Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Research will be published annually: in June and December. Original research articles, special review articles, histories and reports of rare and special cases, new sciences, discoveries and innovations in surgical techniques relevant to the study and practice of Dentistry and all related subspecialties will be considered for publication. Preferences shall be given to clinical and translational researches.<br><br>On behalf of the Editorial Board and the Board of Studies of the School of Dentistry, I present the inaugural issue of the Nigerian Journal of Dental Research with articles focusing on Maxillofacial Surgery, Paedodontics, Periodontics and Community dental health as well as oral health-related quality of life. <br><br>In this maiden edition, there are one special report (invited), six original research articles and two case reports; Ogunbodede extensively discussed the role of Dentistry in the actualisation of Sustainable Developmental Goals. Onyegum and Ehizele studied tongue coating among undergraduates because of its contribution to oral malodour and found a low prevalence which was neither influenced by age nor sex. Nzomiwu et al. in their prospective study on the impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool aged children reported negative impacts on the QoL of preschool aged children and their parents/caregiver which significantly improved after treatment. <br><br>Isere and Azodo reported adverse social interaction and relationship effects of halitosis by the dominant non-receptive feelings, negative attitudes, stigmatizing and discriminatory reactions towards halitosis sufferers in their study. Nnawuihe and Okeigbemen assessed dental caries and periodontal disease burden in selected primary and secondary school children in Edo State, Southern Nigeria and recommended school oral health policy to reduce the burden of untreated preventable common oral diseases and the observed inequalities in oral health experience.<br><br>Soroye and Braimoh in their study on oral health status of children in government and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria found a higher dental caries prevalence and poorer oral hygiene status among government school children compared to those in private schools. They recommended the need to develop, implement oral health education program and promote oral health among students especially in government schools yet not neglecting those in private schools. Mohammed and Umweni reported that traumatic dental injuries is still a common public health problem and the awareness of treatment of these conditions is still low in their study on prevalence of untreated trauma to anterior permanent teeth in 10-14 years old school children in Benin-City. They recommended that oral health education on prevention and treatment of these injuries should be taught in schools <br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<br>Orbital floor fracture can result in significant visual impairment and hence may necessitate surgical intervention. Repair of orbital fractures is optimal when undertaken not more than 14 days post injury. The ideal material for orbital floor reconstruction has remained elusive with each having its own advantage and disadvantage. Cost of material, availability and the surgeon's skill and preference are some of the factors influencing the material used for reconstruction. Titanium mesh is one of the preferred materials used for orbital floor fracture repair because of its biocompatibility, malleability and rigidity. Okoturo et al.&nbsp; reported a case of orbital blowout fracture repair with titanium mesh. Umoh and Akhionbare reported a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as gingival bleeding in a periodontal clinic in Benin City, Nigeria. They concluded that this case can help dentists anticipate that some systemic diseases may present first with oral manifestations and high index of suspicion will result in favourable outcome.<br><br>Finally, we want to thank all our authors, reviewers and indeed members of the editorial team and also express our gratitude to the University and College Management for their support so far. While congratulating the School of Dentistry on this laudable feat of floating a scientific journal, I encourage all dentists and allied professionals particularly the senior academics to seize this opportunity to have their specialists researches/manuscripts reviewed and published. I look forward to an enduring partnership! <br><br><br><br>Professor ON Obuekwe<br>Editor-in-Chief<br><br><br></p> en-US (Editor-In-Chief) (Soundgodworld Tech) Sat, 23 Jan 2021 17:45:56 +0000 OJS 60 Factors Associated with Awareness of Dental Care Services among a Population of Adults in Ondo City, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the factors associated with awareness of dental care services among adult residents of a sub-urban community in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This pilot study, cross-sectional in design was conducted among 263 adult residents attending a dental outreach programme in Ondo city, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with a pretested structured questionnaire and by oral examination. Data obtained was analyzed with SPSS version 21.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The age of the participants ranged from 17 – 90 years, there were 159 (60.5%) males and 169 (64.3%) had tertiary education. Many 232 (88.2%) were aware of orthodox dental care services prior to the study. The main sources of awareness were social media 67 (28.9%) and friends 58 (25.0%). Only 113 (43.0%) had consulted a dentist. A total of 107 (40.7%) of the participants had good oral hygiene, 135 (51.3%) had fair oral hygiene while 21 (8.0%) had poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of dental caries was 28.5%. A higher proportion of those who had tertiary education were aware of dentistry as a component of health care compared to those with secondary and primary education (94.1% vs 84.6% vs 69.0%, X2 = 21.084, p &lt; 0.001). There was no significant association between awareness of dental care services and oral health status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusio</strong>n: Awareness of dental care services among adult residents in Ondo city was high, although it did not reflect on their oral health status and less than half of those aware had consulted the dentist. It was however associated with higher educational qualification.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Afolake S. SALAMI, Ukachi C. NNAWUIHE, Olabimpe A. SOYOYE, Folake B. LAWAL Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Reasons and Incidence of Multiple Registrations by Patients in Repeat Dental Visits in a Tertiary Facility <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To seek information on patients’ knowledge of the purpose of the hospital registration card and of the importance of documentation of their dental records in the hospital folders.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An observational prospective study carried out in the Oral Diagnosis clinic of the Dental center of Central Hospital Benin from October, 2018 to October, 2019. Patients with a new case folder that have been clerked by the primary care dentist filled a questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of the 580 patients that met the inclusion criterion, 62% were females. Thirty one percent of patients registered multiple times, 23% having registered twice thereby having duplicate folders. Forty percent of patients with triple folders visited the clinic between 2 to 5 years ago. As to the whereabouts of their previous registration card, misplaced cards accounted for up to 71% for patients that registered for the second time and 60% for patients that registered the third time or more.</p> <p>Seventy four percent of patients registering for the second time did not believe they would visit again after the last time, that was why they did not keep their registration cards properly. Eighty four percent of 3rd time or more registered patients revealed that the registration card was for reference or for subsequent visitation. Forty five percent registered for the second time believed documenting their information was important for proper treatment/ drug administration while 22% of same felt the questions asked was not relevant to problem that brought them to the clinic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The primary function of patients’ records is to support care. Challenges that lead to multiple dental records which is a direct consequence of multiple registrations by returning patients is complex. One folder per patient can improve patient care and doctors’ performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ifueko Patience OSAGHAE Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Conventional Removable Complete Dentures on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Completely Edentulous Patients in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the impact of conventional removable complete dentures on the oral-health related quality of life of completely edentulous patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Conventional removable complete dentures were fabricated for 20 completely edentulous elderly patients at the University of Benin Prosthetic Dental clinic. Their oral-health related quality of life was assessed using the 11-item modified Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) Questionnaire, before treatment, 1 month and 3 months post insertion of complete dentures.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a significant increase (P=0.0001) in the mean GOHAI scores across all domains following treatment with complete dentures. The highest mean score was observed in the psychosocial function domain from 6.0±1.1 prior to treatment with complete dentures to 13.0±1.1, 1 month after treatment and eventually to 14.7±0.7 recorded 3 months after treatment with complete dentures (P=0.0001). The lowest mean score was observed in the pain and discomfort domain from 3.7±1.0 at baseline to 5.1±0.4, 1 month after treatment to 6.0±0.2 recorded 3 months after treatment (P=0.0001). A significant increase (P=0.0001) in the GOHAI-T mean score was also observed from 14.1±1.8 at baseline to 26.5±1.4, 1 month after treatment to 32.1±1.1 recorded 3 months after treatment with complete dentures.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Conventional removable complete dentures impacts positively on the Oral health-related quality of life of edentulous patients</p> Uyiosa Julia EREGIE, Julie Omole OMO, Matthew Asizide SEDE, Temitope Ayodeji ESAN Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sebaceous Cyst of the face: A Report of Five Cases Treated in A Teaching Hospital in North-West, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp; Sebaceous cysts are keratin filled cysts that occur in the hair bearing areas of the body like the scalp, face, neck, back and scrotum.&nbsp; They present as an asymptomatic swelling. Although these cystic lesions are benign, they need to be treated as soon as possible as they cause disfigurement of the face in head and neck region. There are various modalities of treatment of these cysts, the commonest is surgical excision. We report five cases of sebaceous cysts affecting the face which were treated with surgical excision. The objective of the study was to present the clinical features and management of sebaceous cyst of head and neck region.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was a retrospective review of cases of sebaceous cyst in the head and neck region treated in the Maxillofacial unit of Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna between September, 2014 to June, 2020.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Five cases were treated, 3 males and 2 females.&nbsp; The age range was 29 to 49 years.&nbsp; Mean age was 39 years. Four cases had a single lesion each, while one had multiple facial lesions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Sebaceous cysts could cause significant facial disfigurement. Surgical excision is regarded as the ideal treatment and is associated with excellent outcome. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Oluleke O. OMISAKIN Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hereditary Fibromatosis in a Child-A Case Report <p>Enlargement of keratinized gingival tissues can be due to local irritating factors, drug-induced or hereditary. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is attributed to mutation in son?of?sevenless gene (SOS1). We reported a case of a 9-year-old male with a major complaint of gingival enlargement and its associated unaesthetic appearance. A similar gingival enlargement was also found in a sibling without any associated drug history or syndromic conditions. Gingivectomy was done and he was followed for 6 months during which there was no recurrence. We recommend early intervention to ensure the prevention of malocclusion and aesthetic complications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Modupeoluwa Omotunde SOROYE, Babatope Bamidele OSAGBEMIRO, Etaphromare OKONKWO, Joycelyn Odegua EIGBOBO Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Epithelial Non-Odontogenic Orofacial Tumours <p><strong>Objective: </strong>FNAC is a method of obtaining material for cytopathologic evaluation. This study was aimed at determining the FNAC features of epithelial non-odontogenic orofacial tumours and the usefulness of FNAC for initial tumour assessment.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a prospective study performed on patients with suspicious orofacial non- odontogenic tumours in the Departments of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology &amp; Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a nine-month period. FNAC procedure was performed using 21-gauge needle (0.8mm diameter) and a 5ml or 10ml syringe. Aspirates were smeared on glass slides, fixed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Giemsa and Papanicolaou. Cytopathologic reviews of the smears were done and cytopathologic features documented. Surgical biopsy was also done for histopathologic confirmatory diagnosis. The tumours of epithelial origin were selected for the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 14(35%) histopathologically diagnosed epithelial tumours consisting of squamous cell carcinoma (n=4, 28.6%), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=6, 42.9%), Adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=1, 7.1%), Acini cell carcinoma (n=1, 7.1%), Epimyoepithelial carcinoma (n=1, 7.14%) and Pleomorphic salivary adenoma (n=1, 7.1%). The 14 cases had general cytopathologic diagnosis, either benign or malignant in nature. Those with specific definitive cytopathological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma (n=4, 100%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=2, 33.3%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study demonstrates the essential cytopathologic features following FNAC of epithelial non-odontogenic orofacial tumours useful in cytopathologic diagnosis. FNAC is recommended for use in the early pre-operative assessment of epithelial non-odontogenic tumours of the orofacial region.</p> Dickson Sopuru OKOH, Mercy OKOH, Felix Osawe OMOREGIE, Mike Akin OJO Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Assessment of The Retention Characteristics of Glass Ionomer and Resin Based Fissure Sealants: A One-Year Clinical Trial <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To comparatively assess the retention of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on the occlusal surface of molars in children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A comparative, prospective, assessor-blinded randomized clinical trial. A split-mouth design wherein two fissure sealants, a light cure Bis-GMA resin-based sealant and a glass-ionomer sealant were placed on 50 matched pairs of permanent first molar teeth. The primary outcome was for sealant to either be completely retained, CR; Partially Retained, PR or completely lost, CL and the secondary outcome was for the prevention of pit and fissure caries. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and the level of significance was p&lt;0.05&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; Fifty children aged 6 to 10- years took part in the study. At 12 months review, 32(69.6%) of resin sealed tooth surface had CR, 13(28.3%) were PR and 1(2.2%) was completely lost. The glass ionomer sealed tooth had 27(58.7%) CR, 17(37.0%) PR and 2(4.3%) as CL. Partial components of the resin sealants, mesio-occlusal (MO)/Central occlusal (CO) and Central occlusal (CO)/disto-occlusal (DO) had 30.8% each while MO and CO had 15.4% each; glass ionomer sealant had 47.1% of MO/CO and 23.5% of CO/DO and CO alone was 17.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups. P=0.84</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The retention of resin sealant was superior to that of the glass ionomer sealant.&nbsp; Moreso, the central occlusal portion (CO) was the most recurring anatomical site for the partially retained sealant. Both sealant materials were effective in prevention of pit-and-fissure caries.</p> Philip U OGORDI, Elizabeth O SOTE, Folakemi A OREDUGBA, Idia N IZE-IYAMU Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Periodontitis and Body Mass Index among Patients attending a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Studies have shown that an increased body mass index (BMI) may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. The association has been linked to unhealthy dietary patterns containing insufficient micronutrients, and excessive sugars and fats. This study assessed the prevalence of patients who presented with signs and symptoms of chronic periodontitis that were also overweight or obese</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive retrospective review was conducted on all patients who presented at the Periodontology Clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital with chronic periodontitis over five years (2015-2019). Data retrieved from patients' case notes were analyzed and presented as frequencies and percentages. Test for significance was done using Chi-square statistics, and the level of statistical significance was set at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the one thousand, one hundred and eighty-nine (1,189) patients who attended the Periodontology outpatient clinic during the 5-year duration, five hundred and forty-nine (549) patients were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Age ranged between 18 and 75 years with a mean age of 41.6±13.9 years.&nbsp; There was a slight male predominance with male: female ratio of 1.14:1. More males were underweight and pre-obese than females. More patients who were overweight and pre-obese were in their third decade of life. A total of 27.1% pre-obese and 9.6% obese class 1 patients had chronic periodontitis involving three teeth while 27.6% pre-obese, 6.2% obese class 1 and 51.2% obese class 2 patients had chronic periodontitis of both anterior and posterior teeth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>One out of 3 patients that presented with chronic periodontitis were overweight and 1 out of 12 were obese</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>chronic periodontitis, overweight, obese, multiple teeth</p> Modupeoluwa Omotunde SOROYE, Elfleda Angelina AIKINS Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Evaluation of Factors Determining Patients’ Choice of Dental Prosthesis in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed at determining the factors that influence patients’ decision-making process in the choice of teeth replacement.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This survey was conducted among 242 patients between 17 to 86 years, seeking dental prosthesis in a tertiary dental institution in Lagos, Nigeria. Data was collected using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to evaluate the factors determining patients’ choice of dental prostheses. The resulting data were statistically tested using chi-square and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient with p-value ? 0.05 indicating significant level.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Most recruited participants opted for Acrylic resin removable partial dentures (RPD). Amongst those who chose RPD, a significant number of participants 128(82.5%) did so, due to the cost of the prosthesis (p=0.001). Patients who opted for fixed replacement considered improved aesthetics 74(88.1%), chewing ability 79(94.1%) and comfort 75(89.2%). Fear of surgical procedure, made participants choose dentures and bridges.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Resin-based removable partial dentures were the most utilized options for teeth replacement in our Nigerian study population as these patients perceive them as cost-effective. Also, patients’ choice of fixed prosthesis was often due to their perceived aesthetic and functional advantages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dental prosthesis, factors, patients’ choice, teeth replacement</p> Omotayo A. OREMOSU, John A. ADEOYE, Donna C. UMESI , John O. MAKANJUOLA Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Restoring Anterior Aesthetics with the Andrew’s Type Bridge: A Case Report from Nigeria <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Grossly resorbed anterior edentulous cases especially in a conservative and financially constrained patient present an aesthetic challenge to the rehabilitating dentist. This challenge can be overcome by the use of the Andrew’s Bridge. The construction of this prosthesis requires pre-fabricated components which may not be readily available in Nigeria. However, design modifications may produce satisfactory outcomes with this mode of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 24 year old man presented with a 14 year history of missing anterior teeth in the maxilla and mandible following a road traffic accident. The maxillary edentulous area was rehabilitated with an Andrew’s type bridge whose removable component gained retention from round wire retainers on abutment teeth. The mandibular edentulous area was rehabilitated with an acrylic denture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; The Andrews Bridge is a viable option for rehabilitating grossly resorbed ridges in Nigeria. Design modifications may overcome some of the infrastructural challenges that may be faced in its fabrication.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Oluwafeyisayo Francis IKUSIKA, Olusegun ALALADE, Chibuzor Emmanuel IGWEAGU Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Health Practices and Status of Workers in a Tertiary Institution Attending an Oral Health Outreach Programme in Ibadan Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the oral health practices and status of workers attending an oral health outreach programme in a tertiary institution, in Ibadan, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among attendees of an oral-health outreach programme organized for the administrative staffs of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Information on socio-demography, oral-health practices and self-perceived oral-health states were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Oral-hygiene status was assessed using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), treatment-need assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) and caries level determined using WHO guidelines. Data were analyzed and presented as tables and figures.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of study participants was 41.4(±8.1) years, Male: Female ratio was 2:3. Thirty (38.0%) participants had ever visited the dentist, 18(60%) of whom did so &gt;5 years prior to data collection. Reasons for dental visit included: pain relief in 22(73%) cases, scaling and polishing in 7(22%), and orthodontic reason in 1(5%) case. All participants used toothbrush for mouth cleaning, and 4(5.1%) participants combined it with chewing-sticks. Mouth cleaning frequency were: “once daily” in 57(72.1%) of them, “twice daily” in 18(22.8%) and “occasionally” in 4(5.1%) of participants. Interdental teeth cleaning materials included: wooden toothpick 58(73.4%), plastic toothpick 10(12.6%), dental-floss 8(10.1%), broomstick 5(6.3%) and pins 3(3.7%). Fifty (63.3%) respondents perceived their oral-health status as "good", 21(26.6%) as "average", and 8(10.1%) were "not sure". Oral examination revealed poor oral hygiene in 28(35.4%), moderate/severe gingivitis in 24(30.4%) and caries in 8(10.1%) cases. Treatment needs included: professional cleaning in 64(81.0%) and oral-hygiene instructions and motivations in all participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most participants visited dental clinics for pain, perceived their oral health to be good and required professional dental treatment.</p> Mary Ebelechukwu OSUH, Omotayo Francis FAGBULE, Olubunmi Oluseun ONI Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Health Practices among Adult Population in Plateau State, Nigeria <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the social determinants of oral health practices and habits among adult population in Plateau state.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out on 600 respondents, aged 18-65 years, from three senatorial zones of Plateau state through a multi-stage sampling technique. Representative LGA was selected from each senatorial zone by balloting with equal representation of 200 willing participants. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire used for data collection was adapted from WHO questions on oral health practice to include demographic variables and associated social factors. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and associations were computed using Chi square, and relationships were considered significant at p? 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Ethical approval and permissions were obtained from relevant authorities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study involved 600 respondents and 578 (96.3%) questionnaires were returned correctly filled. Respondents consist of 55.9% males and 44.1% females in ratio of 1.27:1, and mean age of 32.3±13.5 years. Majority of respondents’ age group, educational and occupation status were ? 20 years (34.8%), secondary school (47.6%) and farming (41.7%) respectively. Oral health practices observed among respondents were; 51.9% cleaned/brushed their mouth twice daily, 88.6% use toothbrush as cleaning material, 6.1% shared toothbrush with their spouses, and 47.6% visited the dentist when they have oral disease. Dental visit was influenced by educational status (p=0.001) and occupation (p=0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlation between visit to dentist and primary educational level (p=0.001, OR=3.353, 95% C.I=1.902-5.911), and occupations; farming (p=0.001, OR=0.221, 95% C.I=0.122-0.402) and business (p=0.001, OR=0.257, 95% C.I=0.177). Slightly over 70% of study respondents indulge in opening bottled drinks with their teeth while 18.5% use tobacco products and 25.8% consume alcohol.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study observed that the majority of participants had good oral health practices and attitudes. However, percentage of respondents that indulge in negative oral habits such as opening of bottled drinks with one’s teeth, oral use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption were higher than reported values from neighbouring states. Further studies to identify factors influencing such habits are needed to proffer ways to curb them</p> Arit E. UMOH, Basil T OJUKWU, Basil T OJUKWU, David Betelwhobel UGAL, Auwalu Balarabe SANI Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Pattern of Middle Third Facial Fractures Presenting at a Nigerian Tertiary Health Care Facility <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The patterns of fractures of the individual bones that constitute the middle third of the facial skeleton are varied. The peculiarities of fractures in some anatomic sites are influenced by the prevailing aetiological risk factors in the study population. The objective of this study, was to address the draw-back and determine the pattern of middle third facial fractures presenting at a Nigerian tertiary healthcare centre.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the pattern of middle third facial fractures, presenting at a Nigerian tertiary healthcare facility. Data was collected prospectively over a 49- month period (October, 2006 to October, 2010).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the forty-nine months of this study, 781 patients with maxillofacial fractures were seen Out of this number, 304 patients had middle third facial fractures which represented a prevalence of 38.9%. In this study, only 25 (8.2%) patients with middle third facial fractures were brought from accident scenes and referring peripheral hospitals in ambulances to the health facility.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Middle facial fractures occurred more in male than female and in younger age groups and road traffic crash was the major cause.</p> Joseph O. OGBEIFUN, Benjamin FOMETE, Ademola A. OLAITAN, Sunday O. AJIKE, Charles N. ONONIWU Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the Relationship Between Craniofacial and Dental Measurements in a Nigerian Population and its Usefulness in Maxillary Anterior Teeth Selection <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Maxillary anterior teeth selection for an edentulous patient is carried out majorly to achieve pleasant aesthetics. Facial measurements are one of the most frequently used measures for estimating maxillary teeth size however; these measures have not been proven to be useful in the Nigerian population. This study aimed to determine if craniometric and facial measurements can be used to predict intercanine width (ICW) in the Nigerian population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Prosthodontics clinic, in the teaching hospital. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics. Craniofacial and dental measurements including: circumference of the head (COH), innercanthal distance (ICD), interalar width (IAW), intercommisural width (ICoW) and ICW were also collected for all participants.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 120 subjects aged 18–48years participated in this study. Of the 120 participants, 58 were male and 62 were female. Craniometric and facial measurements were greater in men than women with significant differences for all variables tested (p<u>&lt;</u>0.01). No significant difference was seen between men and women for ICW (p&gt;0.05). Among all the craniofacial measurements, only IAW showed significant correlation with ICW (r=0.218; p&lt;0.05). Logistic regression was used to assess predictability and only IAW provided significant predictability for ICW. ICW can be calculated using the formula: ICW= 45.845+ (0.215 x IAW).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed that craniofacial measurements are significantly higher in men than women and that IAW can be used to predict ICW in the Nigerian edentulous population.</p> Omotayo A. OREMOSU, Yetunde O. AJAYI, Uchenna P. EGBUNAH Copyright (c) 2021 Sat, 23 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000