Odontogenic Cysts in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: a 10-year retrospective Study
Objective: Odontogenic cysts are cysts derived from the tooth-forming apparatus, and are frequently encountered in dental practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the pattern of occurrence of odontogenic cysts in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.
Methods: This was a 10-year (January, 2009 to December 2018) retrospective review of histologically diagnosed cases of odontogenic cysts at UPTH. The age, gender, site and histopathological diagnosis was recorded for each case. The histology slides were retrieved and reviewed to confirm the initial diagnosis. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23 software (IBM Corp., 2015).
Results: Odontogenic cysts accounted for 52 (10.4%) of the total number of 499 histologically diagnosed orofacial lesions seen during the period under review. Patients age ranged from 4 to 68 years, with a mean age of 26.7 ± 14.9 years, and a peak in the third (n=19; 36.5%) decade of life. There was no gender predilection, and the mandible was the most common site.
Dentigerous cyst was the most frequently diagnosed odontogenic cyst (n= 34; 65.4%). It was seen mostly in the second (n=9; 26.5%) and third (n=13; 38.2%) decades of life, with a mean age of 24.6 ± 13.3 years. There was an equal gender distribution, and the mandible (n=25; 73.5%) was the most common site. Radicular cyst was the second most common odontogenic cyst (n=10; 19.2%), while odontogenic keratocyst was the third most common (n=5; 9.6%). Less frequently encountered odontogenic cysts in this study were glandular odontogenic cyst (n=2; 3.8%) and calcifying odontogenic cyst (n=1; 1.9%).
Conclusion: This study found dentigerous cyst to be the most common odontogenic cyst, similar to most reports from Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa, though contrary to reports from other parts of the world. Other findings are essentially in keeping with global trend.
Keywords: odontogenic, cysts, retrospective study, Nigeria