A Ten Year Audit of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria
Keywords:Children, Dental injury, Prevalence, Trauma, Treatment
Objective: To determine the prevalence, management and outcome of traumatic dental injuries among children treated at the Paediatric Dental Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital.
Methods: Data of children with traumatic dental injuries were collected from the clinical register for all children who were treated at the Paediatric Dental Clinic from November 2004 to October 2014. Data collected included the year of trauma, age, sex, teeth injured, type of traumatic dental injury and treatment done. These were analyzed with the chi square test and probability values of p<0.05 applied.
Results: Three hundred and nine children (5.0%) suffered dental trauma out of a total number of 6,169 children (age range 1-16years) seen within the study period. The mean age of the patients with dental trauma was 7.61±4.0 years. Dental injuries relating to the primary teeth was recorded in 104(33.7%). Those relating to the permanent teeth was 188(60.8%) and soft tissue injuries accounted for 17(5.5%). Many males 177(57.3%) were affected more than females 132(42.7%) but this was not statistically significant (P=0.086). There were two peak age incidences of trauma namely the 2-3years and 9-10years of age. The most common type of injury was enamel-dentin fractures 69(22.3%) in permanent teeth and lateral luxation 32(10.4%) in primary teeth. In the primary teeth related injury, the most commonly performed treatments were extractions and drug prescriptions each in 43(39.8%) while for permanent teeth were restorations 86(42.8%) and root canal treatment 57(28.4%).
Conclusion: The clinic prevalence of traumatic dental injury in this study was relatively low, still this low percentage represents a large number of patients. Institution of standard treatment modalities and a long-term follow-up will minimize complications and improve outcome.