Oral disease burden amongst residents of an internally displaced persons camp in Nigeria
Objective: To assess the prevalence of oral diseases and
conditions amongst residents of an isolated camp that
caters for internally displaced persons to define their oral
health need in order to facilitate surveillance and planning
of interventional programmes.
Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among
randomly selected residents of a camp at Uhogua village
forest reserve, Edo State, Nigeria. Socio-demographic data
was obtained using an interviewer-administered
questionnaire. Oral examination was carried out under
natural illumination using mouth mirror, wooden spatula
and blunt dental explorer. Oral hygiene was graded using
Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Diagnoses of caries and
periodontal disease were according to the World Health
Organization criteria. Clinical diagnosis of oral
lesions/conditions was by visual inspection. IBM SPSS
version 25.0 was used for descriptive and inferential analysis
at 95% confidence interval with p set at < 0.05 significance.
Results: The mean age of the 437 study participants was
15.81 ± 8.42 with a range of 4 - 71 years. Males (43.0%),
females (57.0%) and participants with primary education
(78.7%). Only 3.4% of the study participants had good oral
hygiene and 11.9% of the group had periodontal pockets.
Dental caries prevalence was 19.7%. The DMFT/dmft index
value was 0.33/0.13 with PUFA/pufa score of 0.06/0.02.
However, 35.0% of permanent teeth and 79.0% of
deciduous teeth had evidence of dento-oral infection and
ulceration. The prevalence of oral ulcers (1.8%), leukoplakia
(2.1%), erythroplakia (0.5%), oral candidiasis (5.3%), cleft
palate (0.2%) and traumatic dental injury (4.3%). were
noted. Lower educational attainment was associated with
presence of periodontal pockets (p=0.029) and dental caries
Conclusion: Poor oral hygiene was prevalent in this group.
Although the prevalence of oral diseases and conditions
were low in comparison with previous local studies, many of
the carious lesions had signs of dento-oral infections.
Improved access to education with a significant oral health
education content and preventive oral health services are
recommended strategies in reducing the oral health
challenges of this group.