Periodontitis and Body Mass Index among Patients attending a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria
Keywords:chronic periodontitis, overweight, obese, multiple teeth
Objective: Studies have shown that an increased body mass index (BMI) may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. The association has been linked to unhealthy dietary patterns containing insufficient micronutrients, and excessive sugars and fats. This study assessed the prevalence of patients who presented with signs and symptoms of chronic periodontitis that were also overweight or obese
Methods: A descriptive retrospective review was conducted on all patients who presented at the Periodontology Clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital with chronic periodontitis over five years (2015-2019). Data retrieved from patients' case notes were analyzed and presented as frequencies and percentages. Test for significance was done using Chi-square statistics, and the level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05.
Results: Of the one thousand, one hundred and eighty-nine (1,189) patients who attended the Periodontology outpatient clinic during the 5-year duration, five hundred and forty-nine (549) patients were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Age ranged between 18 and 75 years with a mean age of 41.6±13.9 years. There was a slight male predominance with male: female ratio of 1.14:1. More males were underweight and pre-obese than females. More patients who were overweight and pre-obese were in their third decade of life. A total of 27.1% pre-obese and 9.6% obese class 1 patients had chronic periodontitis involving three teeth while 27.6% pre-obese, 6.2% obese class 1 and 51.2% obese class 2 patients had chronic periodontitis of both anterior and posterior teeth.
Conclusion: One out of 3 patients that presented with chronic periodontitis were overweight and 1 out of 12 were obese
Key words: chronic periodontitis, overweight, obese, multiple teeth