Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents in a Rural Nigerian Population
Keywords:Oral mucosa, Oral health, Quality of life.
Background: Oral mucosal lesions affect people of all age groups, and vary in presentation; from asymptomatic to severely debilitating. Studies reporting the prevalence and effects of these lesions in adolescents are generally few compared to those describing the demography of dental caries and other oral diseases.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, factors that contribute to the prevalence, and the association with the oral-health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of adolescents in the population.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done on 240 secondary school students aged 10-19 from three secondary schools selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, presence of systemic illness, and oral habits. Oral-health related quality of life was assessed using the oral-health impact profile (OHIP-14), and intraoral examination was performed within the school premises by a single trained investigator.
Results: A total of 33 participants (13.7%) had oral mucosal lesions. Overall, commissural lip pits (5.0%) were the most prevalent, while geographic tongue and irritation fibroma (0.4% each) were the least prevalent lesions. The mean OHIP-14 score of the participants in this study was 7.17+8.64. Participants with systemic diseases and cheek biting habits had statistically significant worse scores than those without either.
Conclusion: The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions in the adolescent age group are those of developmental origin. Quality of life was negatively impacted by the presence of systemic diseases as well as cheek biting habit.