Aetiology and presentation pattern of mandibular fractures at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Keywords:Mandible, Mandibular fracture, Road traffic accident, Assault, Blast injury
Background: The mandible is the biggest and the main bone occupying the lower third of the face, and it is prone to fracture because of its prominence. Fracture of the mandible is more common in some major parts such as, the angle, the canine region, and the condylar neck due to its weakness in those regions.
Objective: To analyse the aetiology and presentation pattern of mandibular fractures at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri
Methods: This was a retrospective-prospective descriptive study approved by the Ethical Review Board of Borno State Ministry of Health. A total number of 956 facial fracture cases, which included both old cases retrieved from the record book and new cases seen during the period under review, was recorded. Out of this total, 252 mandibular fracture cases were seen during the seven-year period at the State Dental Hospital in Maiduguri. The patients seen were examined clinically and radiographically by a team of three independent dental surgeons after calibration was done by a consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeon. All patients and cases included in the study were properly briefed and informed consent taken prior to carrying out the study.
Results: A total of 956 facial fractures were recorded: 252 cases were mandibular fractures, accounting for a prevalence 26.4%. Males accounted for 76.2% and females 23.8% with a male to female ratio of 3.2:1. Age range was 11-60yrs with a mean age of 27.7yrs. Those aged 21-30yrs showed the highest level of distribution in the sampled cases, and most of the fractures occurred on weekends, especially Friday which accounted for 34.4% of cases. The major aetiology of most fracture is road traffic accident in 122(48.8%) cases and the body (44.8%) of the mandible was noted as the most commonly affected site.
Conclusion: Although road traffic accident appeared to be the major aetiology of mandibular fracture in this study, a substantial part of assault related causes are due to blast related injuries to the mandible. The age distribution, sex, location and treatment modalities still remain the same.